Manual of Clinical Microbiology 10/e , 2-Volume Set 2011






Volume Editor: James H. Jorgensen

Section Editor: Melvin P. Weinstein


1.   Introduction to the Tenth Edition of the Manual of Clinical Microbiology

      James Versalovic

2.   Microscopy

      Danny L. Wiedbrauk

3.   Systems for Detection and Identification of Bacteria and Yeasts

      Cathy A. Petti, Melvin P. Weinstein, and Karen C. Carroll

4.   Molecular Microbiology

      Frederick S. Nolte and Angela M. Caliendo

5.   Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

      A. Betts Carpenter

6.   Infection Control Epidemiology and Clinical Microbiology

      Daniel J. Diekema and Michael A. Pfaller

7.   Investigation of Enteric Disease Outbreaks

      Timothy F. Jones and William E. Keene

8.   Molecular Epidemiology

      Peter Gerner-Smidt, Eija Hyytiä-Trees, and Paul A. Rota

9.   Procedures for the Storage of Microorganisms

      Cathy A. Petti and Karen C. Carroll

10. Prevention and Control of Laboratory-Acquired Infections

      Michael A. Noble

11. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization

      Andreas F. Widmer and Reno Frei

12. Biothreat Agents

      Susan E. Sharp and Mike Loeffelholz

13. The Human Microbiome

      Sarah K. Highlander, James Versalovic, and Joseph F. Petrosino

14. Microbial Genomics and Pathogen Discovery

      Anne M. Gaynor and David Wang





Volume Editors: Karen C. Carroll and Guido Funke

Section Editors: Kathryn A. Bernard, J. Stephen Dumler, Cathy A. Petti, Sandra S. Richter, and Peter A. R. Vandamme




15. Taxonomy and Classification of Bacteria

      Peter A. R. Vandamme

16. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Bacteriology

      Ellen Jo Baron and Richard B. Thomson, Jr.

17. Reagents, Stains, and Media: Bacteriology

      Ronald M. Atlas and James W. Snyder




18. General Approaches to Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

      Kathryn L. Ruoff

19. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci

      Karsten Becker and Christof von Eiff

20. Streptococcus

      Barbara Spellerberg and Claudia Brandt

21. Enterococcus

      Lúcia Martins Teixeira, Maria da Glória Siqueira Carvalho, Patricia Lynn Shewmaker, and Richard R. Facklam

22. Aerococcus, Abiotrophia, and Other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci

      Kathryn L. Ruoff




23. General Approaches to the Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Rods

      Kathryn A. Bernard

24.  Bacillus and Other Aerobic Endospore-Forming Bacteria

Niall A. Logan, Alex R. Hoffmaster, Sean V. Shadomy, and Kendra E. Stauffer

25. Listeria and Erysipelothrix

      Nele Wellinghausen

26.Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods

      Guido Funke and Kathryn A. Bernard

27. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

      Patricia S. Conville and Frank G. Witebsky

28. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures

      Gaby E. Pfyffer and Frantiska Palicova

29. Mycobacterium: Laboratory Characteristics of Slowly Growing Mycobacteria

      Elvira Richter, Barbara A. Brown-Elliott, and Richard J. Wallace, Jr.

30. Mycobacterium: Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

      Barbara A. Brown-Elliott and Richard J. Wallace, Jr.




31. Approaches to the Identification of Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacteria

      Georges Wauters and Mario Vaneechoutte

32. Neisseria

      Johannes Elias, Matthias Frosch, and Ulrich Vogel

33. Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Eikenella, Kingella, Pasteurella, and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods

      Reinhard Zbinden and Alexander von Graevenitz

34. Haemophilus

      Nathan A. Ledeboer and Gary V. Doern

35. Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella

      James P. Nataro, Cheryl A. Bopp, Patricia I. Fields, James B. Kaper, and Nancy A. Strockbine

36. Yersinia

      Martin E. Schriefer and Jeannine M. Petersen

37. Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, Plesiomonas, and Other Enterobacteriaceae

      Sharon L. Abbott

38. Aeromonas

      Amy J. Horneman and Afsar Ali

39. Vibrio and Related Organisms

      Sharon L. Abbott, J. Michael Janda, and J. J. Farmer III

40. Pseudomonas

      Deborah A. Henry and David P. Speert

41. Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, Pandoraea, Brevundimonas, Comamonas, Delftia, and Acidovorax

      John J. LiPuma, Bart J. Currie, Sharon J. Peacock, and Peter A. R. Vandamme

42. Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Moraxella, and Other Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacteria

      Mario Vaneechoutte, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Alexandr Nemec, Peter Kämpfer, and Georges Wauters

43. Bordetella and Related Genera

      Carl-Heinz Wirsing von König, Marion Riffelmann, and Tom Coenye

44. Francisella and Brucella

      Jeannine M. Petersen, Martin E. Schriefer, and George F. Araj

45. Legionella

      Paul H. Edelstein

46. Bartonella

      Ricardo G. Maggi, Volkhard A. J. Kempf, Bruno B. Chomel, and Edward B. Breitschwerdt




47. Approaches to Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria

      Ellen Jo Baron

48. Peptostreptococcus, Finegoldia, Anaerococcus, Peptoniphilus, Veillonella, and Other Anaerobic Cocci

      Yuli Song and Sydney M. Finegold

49. Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, and Other Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods

      William G. Wade and Eija Könönen

50. Clostridium

      Dennis L. Stevens, Amy E. Bryant, Anja Berger, and Christoph von Eichel-Streiber

51. Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods

      Eija Könönen, William G. Wade, and Diane M. Citron




52. Algorithms for Identification of Curved and Spiral-Shaped Gram-Negative Rods

      Irving Nachamkin

53. Campylobacter and Arcobacter

      Collette Fitzgerald and Irving Nachamkin

54. Helicobacter

      Andrew J. Lawson

55. Leptospira

      Paul N. Levett

56. Borrelia

      Martin E. Schriefer

57. Treponema and Brachyspira, Human Host-Associated Spirochetes

      Justin D. Radolf, Allan Pillay, and David L. Cox




58. General Approaches to Identification of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

      J. Stephen Dumler

59. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma

      Ken B. Waites and David Taylor-Robinson

60. Chlamydiaceae

      Charlotte Gaydos and Andreas Essig

61. Rickettsia and Orientia

      David H. Walker and Donald H. Bouyer

62. Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Related Intracellular Bacteria

      Megan E. Reller and J. Stephen Dumler

63. Coxiella

      Stephen R. Graves and Robert F. Massung

64. Tropheryma

      Thomas Marth





Volume Editor: James H. Jorgensen

Section Editor: Jean B. Patel


65. Antibacterial Agents

      Joseph D. C. Yao and Robert C. Moellering, Jr.

66. Mechanisms of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents

      Louis B. Rice and Robert A. Bonomo

67. Susceptibility Test Methods: General Considerations

      John D. Turnidge, Mary Jane Ferraro, and James H. Jorgensen

68. Susceptibility Test Methods: Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

      Jean B. Patel, Fred C. Tenover, John D. Turnidge, and James H. Jorgensen

69. Susceptibility Testing Instrumentation and Computerized Expert Systems for Data Analysis and Interpretation

      Sandra S. Richter and Mary Jane Ferraro

70. Special Phenotypic Methods for Detecting Antibacterial Resistance

      Jana M. Swenson, Jean B. Patel, and James H. Jorgensen

71. Susceptibility Test Methods: Fastidious Bacteria

      Janet A. Hindler and James H. Jorgensen

72. Susceptibility Test Methods: Anaerobic Bacteria

      Diane M. Citron and David W. Hecht

73. Susceptibility Test Methods: Mycobacteria, Nocardia, and Other Actinomycetes

      Gail L. Woods, Shou-Yean Grace Lin, and Edward P. Desmond

74. Detection and Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Pathogenic Bacteria

      J. Kamile Rasheed and Fred C. Tenover







Volume Editor: Marie Louise Landry

Section Editors: Angela M. Caliendo, Christine C. Ginocchio, Yi-Wei Tang, and Alexandra Valsamakis



75. Taxonomy and Classification of Viruses

      Elliot J. Lefkowitz

76. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Virology

      Michael S. Forman and Alexandra Valsamakis

77. Reagents, Stains, Media, and Cell Cultures: Virology

      Christine C. Ginocchio and Patricia C. Harris

78. General Approaches for Detection and Identification of Viruses

      Marie Louise Landry, Angela M. Caliendo, Christine C. Ginocchio, Yi-Wei Tang, and Alexandra Valsamakis



79. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

      Brigitte P. Griffith, Sheldon Campbell, and Angela M. Caliendo

80. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2

      S. Michele Owen, Antoine Gessain, Charlene S. Dezzutti, Elliot P. Cowan, and Renu B. Lal

81. Influenza Viruses

      Robert L. Atmar and Stephen E. Lindstrom

82. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses

      Diane S. Leland

83. Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

      Yi-Wei Tang and James E. Crowe, Jr.

84. Measles and Rubella Viruses

      William J. Bellini and Joseph P. Icenogle

85. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

      Kathleen A. Stellrecht, Daryl M. Lamson, and José R. Romero

86. Rhinoviruses

      Marie Louise Landry

87. Coronaviruses

      Kanti Pabbaraju and Julie D. Fox

88. Hepatitis A and E Viruses

      David A. Anderson and Natalie A. Counihan

89. Hepatitis C Virus

      Michael S. Forman and Alexandra Valsamakis

90. Gastroenteritis Viruses

      Xiaoli Pang and Xi Jiang

91. Rabies Virus

      Lillian A. Orciari and Charles E. Rupprecht

92. Hendra and Nipah Viruses

      Pierre E. Rollin, Paul A. Rota, Sherif Zaki, and Thomas G. Ksiazek

93. Arboviruses

      Robert S. Lanciotti and Theodore F. Tsai

94. Hantaviruses

      Charles F. Fulhorst and Michael D. Bowen

95. Arenaviruses and Filoviruses

      Pierre E. Rollin, Stuart T. Nichol, Sherif Zaki, and Thomas G. Ksiazek




96. Herpes Simplex Viruses and Herpes B Virus

      Keith R. Jerome and Rhoda Ashley Morrow

97. Varicella-Zoster Virus

      Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl and Stephan W. Aberle

98. Human Cytomegalovirus

      Richard L. Hodinka

99. Epstein-Barr Virus

      Barbara Gärtner

100.  Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8

         Philip E. Pellett and Graham Tipples

101.  Adenoviruses

         Christine Robinson and Marcela Echavarria

102.  Human Papillomaviruses

         Patti E. Gravitt and Christine C. Ginocchio

103.  Human Polyomaviruses

         Richard S. Buller

104.  Human Parvoviruses

         Jeanne A. Jordan

105.  Poxviruses

         Inger K. Damon

106.  Hepatitis B and D Viruses

         Rebecca T. Horvat and Gary E. Tegtmeier



107.  Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

         Adriano Aguzzi and Markus Glatzel






Volume Editor: Marie Louise Landry

Section Editors: Angela M. Caliendo, Christine Ginocchio, and Alexandra Valsamakis


108.  Antiviral Agents

         Nell S. Lurain and Kenneth D. Thompson

109.  Mechanisms of Resistance to Antiviral Agents

         Robert W. Shafer, Isabel Najera, and Sunwen Chou

110.  Susceptibility Test Methods: Viruses

         Max Q. Arens and Ella M. Swierkosz





Volume Editor: David W. Warnock

Section Editors: Mary E. Brandt and Elizabeth M. Johnson



111.  Taxonomy and Classification of Fungi

         Mary E. Brandt and David W. Warnock

112.  Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Mycology

         Karin L. McGowan

113.  Reagents, Stains, and Media: Mycology

         James W. Snyder, Ronald M. Atlas, and Mark T. LaRocco

114.  General Approaches for Direct Detection of Fungi

         Yvonne R. Shea



115.  Candida, Cryptococcus, and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance

         Susan A. Howell and Kevin C. Hazen

116.  Pneumocystis

         Melanie T. Cushion

117.  Aspergillus and Penicillium

         S. Arunmozhi Balajee and Mary E. Brandt

118.  Fusarium and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi

         Deanna A. Sutton and Mary E. Brandt

119.  Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis

         Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Eric Dannaoui, Olivier Lortholary, and Françoise Dromer

120.  Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and Other Dimorphic Fungi Causing Systemic Mycoses

         Mary E. Brandt, Beatriz L. Gomez, and David W. Warnock

121.  Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, and Agents of Superficial Mycoses

         Richard C. Summerbell

122.  Bipolaris, Exophiala, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, and Other Melanized Fungi

         Josep Guarro and G. Sybren de Hoog

123.  Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma

         Abdalla O. A. Ahmed and G. Sybren de Hoog

124.  Mycotoxins

         Nancy C. Isham, William J. Halsall, and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum

125.  Lacazia, Pythium, and Rhinosporidium

         Leonel Mendoza and Raquel Vilela





Volume Editor: David W. Warnock

Section Editors: Mary E. Brandt and Elizabeth M. Johnson


126.  Antifungal Agents

         David W. Warnock

127.  Mechanisms of Resistance to Antifungal Agents

         Theodore C. White and Samantha G. Hoot

128.  Susceptibility Test Methods: Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi

         Elizabeth M. Johnson, Ana V. Espinel-Ingroff, and Michael A. Pfaller





Volume Editor: David W. Warnock

Section Editors: Ronald M. Atlas, Lynne S. Garcia, and Gary W. Procop



129.  Taxonomy and Classification of Human Parasitic Protozoa and Helminths

         Francis E. G. Cox

130.  Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology

         Robyn Y. Shimizu, Felix Grimm, Lynne S. Garcia, and Peter Deplazes

131.  Reagents, Stains, and Media: Parasitology

         Andrea J. Linscott and Susan E. Sharp

132.  General Approaches for Detection and Identification of Parasites

         Lynne S. Garcia, Robyn Y. Shimizu, and Graeme P. Paltridge



133.  Plasmodium and Babesia

         William O. Rogers

134.  Leishmania and Trypanosoma

         David A. Bruckner and Jaime A. Labarca

135.  Toxoplasma

         James B. McAuley, Jeffery L. Jones, and Kamaljit Singh

136.  Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebae

         Govinda S. Visvesvara

137.  Intestinal and Urogenital Amebae, Flagellates, and Ciliates

         Amy L. Leber and Susan Novak-Weekley

138.  Isospora, Cyclospora, and Sarcocystis

         David S. Lindsay, Steve J. Upton, and Louis M. Weiss

139.  Cryptosporidium

         Lihua Xiao and Vitaliano Cama

140.  Microsporidia

         Rainer Weber, Peter Deplazes, and Alexander Mathis

141.  Nematodes

         Harsha Sheorey, Beverley-Ann Biggs, and Peter Traynor

142.  Filarial Nematodes

         Doran L. Fink and Thomas B. Nutman

143.  Cestodes

         Hector H. Garcia, Juan A. Jimenez, and Hermes Escalante

144.  Trematodes

         Malcolm K. Jones, Jennifer Keiser, and Donald P. McManus

145.  Less Common Helminths

         Gary W. Procop and Ronald C. Neafie

146.  Arthropods of Medical Importance

         Sam R. Telford III





Volume Editors: James H. Jorgensen and David W. Warnock

Section Editor: Gary W. Procop


147.  Antiparasitic Agents

         Karin Leder and Peter F. Weller

148.  Mechanisms of Resistance to Antiparasitic Agents

         W. Evan Secor and Jacques Le Bras

149.  Susceptibility Test Methods: Parasites

         Jacques Le Bras and W. Evan Secor